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Accumulators

Editor's Note
Accumulators
Gossip
New Eaton
FP Expo 2000
The Chunnel
Intl. Journal
SME

A Primer on Accumulators

Introduction:

This primer is for the user of any type of accumulator that is needed in any system, irrespective of the type fluid, where pumps are used to move fluids, create pressures, act as auxiliary means of providing fluids in cases of emergencies such as in public utility power generating systems, process plants, steel or aluminum mills, farm and road machinery, pulp and paper plants, rubber molding, plastic machinery, to name a few of the places where accumulators are used.

There are no mysteries in manufacturing and applications of these units.  While there are various types available, there still is a preference for certain types by users for a number of reasons.  These will be covered later in this document.

The purpose of this “Primer” is to make it possible for the purchaser and/or user to obtain the best type of accumulator for his/her application, with the assurance that the best product will satisfy the need.

We are not the manufacturer of the products that are offered.  However, as experienced engineers who have been associated with the accumulator industry for more than 50 years, we qualify as experts in their selection and application.

As PE and CFPE engineers, we have the necessary education and experience that facilitates our offering you, the user or OEM, the best product available, protected by the required legal certifications and insurance protection.

The attached charts provide the various types of all kinds of accumulators as well as the necessary charging and gaging equipment used in precharging and mounting brackets.

Whose accumulators do you use?  Why?  Does it really matter?  If its bladder, piston or a derivative?

I.  Bladder Type Accumulators

The father or grandfather of the famous bladder type accumulator is a Frenchman, Jean Mercier, who left France a few years before the invasion of France.  After travelling around a while, he came to our country, where he met Edward M. Greer at a hydraulics company, engineering and manufacturing aircraft hydraulic components, for the fledgling aviation industry in 1940-1941.

Ed Greer in 1942 established Greer Hydraulics in New York City to produce aircraft hydraulic components for the various aircraft companies including Republic Aviation, Grumman Aircraft, Pratt and Whitney, Curtiss Wright, etc.

In 1943, Jean Mercier recognized an opportunity for his bladder type accumulators in Hamilton Standard’s hydromatic propellers.  They needed a device that would fit inside the dome of their propeller, and have the ability to store sufficient hydraulic fluid to “feather” the propeller on engine failure that might be experienced in combat.  It also had to be able to function at temperatures from -40F. to +180F.

There was single insurmountable problem - weight.  While it performed perfectly, the weight was a problem, since WW II aircraft were quite small and weight was a consideration.

While Merciers unit was not used, he did design another method to use his principle, which was very successful.  This is the use of a gas/oil separator, today called a bladder.

Greer and Mercier formed a patent company (Greer-Olaer) and Greer Hydraulics became the sole licensee, with the rights to continue development and to license other companies outside the U.S. From the early 1950’s, bladder type accumulators became the unit that was specified and used in almost every application where hydraulics was employed - machine tools, plastic machinery, circuit breakers, rock crushers, oil drilling, farm and road machinery, to name a few.

The bladder and shell type design in the mid 1950’s was licensed to several foreign companies including Olaer of France, Robert Bosch of Germany, Finney Presses of England.  Later, Hydac assumed the license from Robert Bosch.

However, even though Robert Bosch was cancelled as licensee, they continued to produce the units as if they were still approved to this very day.

In Japan, a licensee was established, who did a fine job, and later we saw they were compromised by Nacol, and are available here.  These units use a folded type of bladder that is only suitable for their units, and unlike other bladder type units are not interchangeable.  At times, this can be a logistics problem.

In this country, many companies offer an equal in terms of capacity and in many cases, the components are also interchangeable.

These companies include Accumulators, Inc., Parker-Hannifin (who recently acquired Greer Hydraulics), Tobul, EPE Hyd., Vickers, Hycon (Hydac), Wilkes and McLean, Young Engineering and Manufacturing Company to name a few of the better companies.

Each supplier makes appropriate claims for their units which is interesting, in that the differences are so slight, and their appearance is identical to the original units.

The fact is that all bladder type accumulators, if properly sized and applied for the application, will function in the same basic manner, providing good performance and life.

Why does the (user, OEM) select one company’s product rather than another?

1. Price

2. Availability and delivery

3. Engineering and service support

4. The salesman offering the product

5. Field or usage experience

6. Manufacturers reputation

There are also a number of derivatives of the bladder accumulator, that have designations or names established due to their application, including:

a. Suction stabilizers

b. Kleenvents

c. Pulsation dampeners

d. Surgekushers or surge suppressors

e. Disposable or non repairable units

f. Oil field/oil drilling mud pump units

g. Military types per MIL specs.

 

Here are the accepted definitions for these derivative units

a. Suction Stabilizers

Basically a low pressure (bag and shell) for use at pressures less than 100 psig.  These units are usually used to maintain constant inlet pressure at the suction port of piston type pumps, from single piston to multi piston types.  This type of application was originally conceived and used in the Oil fields by John Miller, a field engineer, who determined that if one could maintain a constant pressure at the inlet of such pumps, it would reduce the noise level, andextend the life of the bearings.

Since, in most applications, water or a mixture of water with another chemical of (?) effects the life of these pumps due to severe cavitation and pulsations.  Field tests and actual usage over many years has proven that the results are excellent.

b. Kleenvents

A low pressure unit, where the reservoir is an important item.  The reservoir is the one item in the system that contains the fluid and must be kept clean and cool at all times.  Generally, there is a vent or filler cap which maintain the integrity of this unit.  However, where the system is installed in an area where a high degree of airborne contaminates exits, these airborne contaminates can find their way into the reservoir and eventually into the system, resulting in valve, pump or other component failures.

The Kleenvent allows the reservoir to breathe into itself (the bladder) rather than the outside atmosphere, preventing any contaminate or moisture from entering the system.

c. Pulsation Dampeners

Are used in systems where piston pumps or rapid valve closures cause severe pulsation “spikes”.  These units are used in water, oil, chemical, etc. systems up to 6000 psi, and installed downstream of the pump or valve.

It is sized based on the flow gpm, type, size of the tubing or pipe used, and the required limitation of the “spike” (water hammer).

If these “water hammers” are not controlled, it can result in line, fitting or structural failures.

Rapid closures of valves such as is found in utility fuel systems, where “trip” valves are used to shut down a boiler, when the fuel pressure falls below allowable limits, causing
flameouts.

These units also help to reduce noise in the pipeline and also in hydraulic systems where high pressures, up to 5-6000 psi are used.  Noise is a factor, and is now essential to control, as required by OSHA, to keep noise levels below 68 DBA.

d. Surge Suppressors/Surgekushions

These units are available in two ratings 275 and 500 psi, and in sizes from 2-1/2 gallon to 5000 gallons.

These units are used in applications where system failure could damage expensive and essential operating machinery in power generating plants, such as the bearings of a turbine, or used to maintain constant pressure in a press system (water or oil), act as a secondary reservoir, reduce line shock in low pressure lube systems.

These units provide a volume of lube oil to a bearing in the event the main lube pump fails.  The volume of lube oil is sufficient to maintain pressure until the standby pump comes on line.

Similarly, such a requirement is essential in steel and other metal producing plants, where a continuous process is in operation, and a failure would result in severe damage to the system, causing lengthy downtime.

e. Disposable, non repairable bladder accumulators

These units are found in material handling systems, farm and road machinery, due to their low initial cost, and rated up to about 3000 psig.

New competitive units are available rated up to 3000 psig, and repairable.  Therefore, the cost of replacements are more economical.  Units are available from 6 cubic inch up to 460 cubic inch.

f. Military units

These units must meet specific MIL requirements, in terms of flow, pressure, temperature, and environmentalconditions as outlined in MIL-S-901C.  These units may require special metals for the shell, special bladder material, and specific gas and oil ports.  Such units are used in Ground Support Equipment, military tanks, submarines, etc.

f (a) Nuclear types

The use of special qualified units for nuclear applications, including the cooling system, filter systems, hydraulic controls, on special machinery used in Nuclear Power Plants. Such applications require the “N” stamp.

Used to reduce shock “spikes” in the cooling piping systems where multi piston type pumps are used. Such units prevent failures in these sensitive systems, by limiting the rise of the pressure spikes. These units must satisfy the still requirements of nuclear specs.

g. Oil field and/or drilling units

These units are basic shell and bladder types for use up to 6000 psig, and for use under very corrosive conditions, such as salt water atmosphere, chemicals, etc.  Generally, these units are evolved from standard type bladder units, with specified type ports.

While bladder types are most popular, there are other types available and can be used in the same applications. 

II  Piston Types

These units are available in a broad variety of sizes, with the only limitation, length and bore size of the tube (shell).

One can envision piston type units in sizes up to 50 gallons, with the limitation being height.  Piston type accumulators, over 5 gallon capacity, should be vertically installed, rather than horizontally, to prevent damage and deformation of the piston type seals.

Availability of the shell material, at times, can be a problem, if ASME certification is required.

Piston units are used in the same application as bladder units, when using the proper seals for the application.

Seals for piston accumulators are available in many compounds, depending on the fluid used in the intended system.  These units are available from:

*   Parker Hannifin*

*   Blair Industries*

*   Tobul*

*   Vickers*

*   EPE Fluid Power*

*   Milwaukee Cylinder

*   Cross Mfg Company

*   Ortman Fluid Power

*   Victor Fluid Power

*   Hunt Valve Company

*   Many cylinder manufacturers

 NOTE:  *Also suppliers of bladder type accumulators

III  Large Size BladderType Accumulators

Recently, the need for very large size accumulators have become more evident, where large volume systems, using hydraulic oils and/or water based fluids and/or water are used.

These large bladder accumulators are far more economical for use rather than manifolding multiple smaller sizes.

These larger units are used in power generation utility lube systems, chemical and process plants, water pumping stations, to reduce shock resulting from shock created by rapid closure of valves, and/or in systems that require maintaining fuel pressure in oil fired boilers.

In systems where there are multiple presses, it is essential to maintain pressure in the system, so that the quality of the product is not effected by pressure variations or spikes.

This is particularly necessary, where multiple presses are on a random cycle, and one operator is in control.

In fire sprinkler systems, a “jockey” type pump is used to maintain adequate pressure in the header to insure
availability of water at the sprinkler head in case of a fire.

Such systems are found in large manufacturing plants, public buildings, industrial parks, and where the danger of a fire may cause damage to the facility or harm to employees.

IV.  Air over fluid (Non Separator type) Accumulators

For many years, companies that used presses in their operation used non separator type accumulators.

One of the reasons is that these units are large capacity and used generally in low pressure applications.

These units are fabricated as ASME tanks, have high and low level switches, to prevent both overflowing, and also to prevent air to enter the system causing cavitation and noise in the pumping system.

The desired pressure is established by use of an air compressor that provided air pressure to the non separated fluid, maintaining the desired pressure for that system.

NOTE:  The fluid level must be maintained between the two level gages for proper and safe operation.  

V.  Weight Loaded Type Accumulators

There are a few weight loaded type accumulators in use.  With the proper weight “piled” on top of the platform attached to the piston, constant system pressure is obtained.

Such accumulators, while very efficient in terms of providing constant pressure, they require a large amount of floor space, and constant attention, to insure that no fluid leakage occurs from the piston and shaft.

Where such installations are still in use, and additional capacity is required, it is possible to add either bladder or piston type units.

VI  The following pages provide technical details, model numbers, including precharge information, mounting brackets, and other information important for the use and installation of accumulators.

Caution:

1. Never use oxygen gas for precharging.  Always use clean dry nitrogen.

2. Never disassemble any accumulator until the precharge is at Zero psi. To insure this, remove the valve core.

3. Never over torque any component when reassembling.

4. Never use any lubricating compound on any component.  It is best to use common Petrolatum.

5. Always precharge the units slowly. On large size units, allow the charging system to stabilize at the desired precharge, before discon- necting the precharging unit.

VII.  Prices and delivery will be quoted by calling this telephone number 508-481-4000, or Fax:  508-481-4004.

by: Julius Kendall

 

 

Send mail to KevinBailey@ifps.org or
Fluid Power Journal with questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright 1999 Fluid Power Journal
Last modified: March 21, 2000
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